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Medical Biotech


Inventions from the ORAL ERA Era

Trepanning holes cut into skull 65,000 BCE France, Europe
Dentistry infected tooth cleaning 12,000 BCE Northern Italy

Inventions from the TOKENS ERA Era

Dental drill dentistry 7000 BCE Indus River
Hallucinogenic mushrooms ceremony 7000 BCE Subsaharan Africa
Toothpaste oral hygiene 5000 BCE Egypt
Opium domestication powerful pain relief 5000 BCE Europe (67)

Inventions from the WRITTEN ERA Era

Wine as anesthesia highly intoxicated 3500 BCE Mesopotamia
Tattoo skin scar/pigment 3200 BCE Otzi the Iceman Alps of Europe
Willow bark aspirin herbal 3000 BCE Egypt
Honey wound treatment 2800 BCE Egypt
Soap very harsh initially 2800 BCE Mesopotamia (Sumer) (52)
Mummification anatomic preservation 2600 BCE Egypt
Acupuncture needle therapy 2500 BCE China
Garlic as mosquito repellant malaria prevention 2500 BCE Egypt
Mosquito bed netting sheer fabric 2500 BCE Egypt
Opium as anesthesia narcotic herbal 2000 BCE Egypt
Calamine, zinc oxide, iron oxide skin rash Rx 1500 BCE Egypt
Toe prosthesis toe replacement 950 BCE Egypt
Dentures false teeth 750 BCE Italy

Inventions from the ALPHABET ERA Era

Moldy bean curds as antibiotic 500 BCE Egypt/Greece
Prosthetic limb 550 BCE India/Persia
Ephedrine herbal stimulant 100 BCE China
Artemisinin/quinine herbal malaria treatment 0-1600 AD China/Latin America

Inventions from the PRINT ERA Era

Toothbrush boar's hair 1498 AD China
Quinine bark for malaria treatment 1672 AD Jesuit missionaries, New World natives Latin America
Randomized controlled clinical trial bias free clinical testing experiment 1747 AD James Lind UK (96)
Appendectomy successful 1763 AD Claudius Aymand France
Vaccination infectious disease prevention 1796 AD Edward Jenner UK (18)
Morphine general anesthesia 1804 AD Hanaoka Seishu Japan
Lighted endoscope endoscopy 1805 AD Philipp Bozzini Austria
Dental floss oral hygiene 1815 AD Levi Spear Palmly USA
Stethescope medical listening 1816 AD Renae Laennec France

Inventions from the WIRED ERA Era

Hypodermic syringe medicine delivery not by mouth 1844, 1853 Francis Rynd, Charles Gabriel Pravaz, Alexander Wood France/UK (23)
Ether general anesthesia first true general anesthesia 1842 Crawford W. Long, William Morton USA
Ophthalmoscope eye inspection 1851 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmhotz Germany
Aspirin synthesized acetylsalicyclic acid 1853 Charles Fredic Gerhardt Germany
Snellen eye test visual acuity 1862 Hermann Snellen Netherlands
Modern thermometer clinical fever test 1866 Thomas Albutt UK
Vaccine for cholera first successful bacterial vaccine 1879 Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, Pasteur Instittute France
Autoclave sterilization instruments 1879 Charles Chamberlain
Modern otoscope ear examination 1881 A. Hartman Germany
Rabies vaccine previously fatal 1882 Louis Pasteur France
Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines 1890 Emil von Behring Germany
Modern toothpaste and toothpaste tube oral hygiene 1892 Washington Wentworth Sheffield USA
X-ray imaging first medical imaging 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Germany (59)
Sphygmomanometer practical 1896 Scipione Riva-Rocci Italy
Rotator cuff tendon repair shoulder surgery 1898 Wilhelm Muller Germany
ABO blood groups compatibility for transfusions 1900 Karl Landskiner Austria (51)
EKG electrocardiogram machine 1903 Willem Einthoven Netherlands
Barium sulfate contrast x-ray imaging, complex 1905 USA/Germany
Arsphenamine chemotherapy for syphilis and African sleeping sickness 1907 Alfred Bertheim, Paul Erlich Germany
IUD intrauterine device contraception drug free 1909 Richard Richter Germany
Latex condom contraception 1912 Julius Fromm Poland/Germany
Isoniazid for tuberculosis 1912 Meyer and Malley Czechoslovakia
Heparin anticoagulant, blood thinner 1916 Jay McClean, William Henry Howell USA
Knee arthroscopy minimal surgery 1919 Kenji Takagi Japan

Inventions from the WIRELESS ERA Era

Epidural anesthesia regional anesthesia 1921 Fidel Pages Spain
Band aid sterile adhesive bandage 1921 Earle Dickson USA
Polygraph lie detector test 1921 John Augustus Larson USA
Q tips cotton tipped swabs 1923 Leo Gerstenzang USA
Electroencephalogram EEG test, brain electrical activity 1924 Hans Berger Germany
Carpal tunnel release surgery treatment for hand numbness and pain 1924 Herbert Galloway Canada
Tetanus toxoid vaccine prevents lock jaw infection 1925 Alexander Thomas Glenny et al. UK
Pertussis vaccine prevents whooping cough 1926 Leila Denmark USA
Diphtheria toxoid vaccine prevents diphtheria 1927 Alexander Thomas Glenny et al. UK
Iron lung respirator breathing machine 1927 Phillip Drinker,Louis Agassiz Shaw USA
Penicillin blockbuster antibiotic 1928 Alexander Fleming UK (19)
Cardiac pacemaker wired heart rhythm correction 1928 Mark Lidwell Australia
Cotton tampon menstruation management 1930 Earle Cleveland Haas USA
Breathalyzer blood alcohol assessment 1931 Rolla Neil Harger, Indiana U. USA
Hydrocortisone potent anti-inflammatory medication 1936 Percy Lavon Julian USA
Blood bank transfusion management 1937 Charles Richard Drew, Bernard Fantus, Chicago USA
Hip replacement surgery fractures, arthritis 1940 Austin Moore USA
Hemodialysis replaces kidney function 1943 Willem J. Kolff Netherlands
Lidocaine, Xylocaine local anesthesia 1943 Nils Lofgren Sweden
Chemotherapy for cancer nitrogen mustard 1946 Alfred Gilman, Louis S. Goodman USA
Methotrexate immunosupression treat inflammation 1947 Sidney Farber USA
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) pain reliever, antipyretic 1948 Julius Axelrod, Bernard Brodie USA
Electrolyte replacement for diarrhea oral and intravenous fluids 1949 Daniel C. Darrow, Harold Harrison USA
Succinylcholine muscle relaxant for anesthesia paralysis 1949 Daniel Bovet Italy
Artificial intraocular lens lens replacement for cataracts 1949 Harold Ridley UK
Holter monitor detects abnormal heart rhythms 1949 Norman Jeffferis Holter USA
Nystatin, Mycostatin antifungal medicine 1950 Rachel Fuller Brown, Elizabeth Lee Hazen USA
Thorazine, chlorpromazine psychotrophic medicine 1951 Heni Laborit, Pierre Deniker, Heinz Lehmann France/Canada (87)
Salk polio vaccine polio prevention 1952 Jonas Salk USA
Apgar score newborn health assessment 1952 Virginia Apgar USA
Isoniazid for tuberculosis second biggest killer in history 1952 Meyer and Malley Czechoslovakia
Heart lung machine allows for heart surgery on a stopped heart 1953 John Heysham Gibbon USA
Vancomycin antibiotic treats severe staph and strep infections 1953 Edmund Kornfeld USA
Cochlear implant hearing surgery 1953 Andre Djourno France
Catheter surgery minimally invasive surgery, Seldinger technique 1953 Sven Ivar Seldinger Sweden (79)
Ultrasound, echocardiogram sound waves for diagnosis 1953, 1956 Inge Edler, Carl Hertz, Ian Donald, Tom Browen Sweden /UK (75)
Prednisone cortisone pill anti-inflammatory 1954 Arthur Noble UK
Kidney transplant most common organ transplant 1954 Joseph E. Murray USA
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR 1954 Peter Safar, James Elam USA
Chlorhexidine topical skin disinfectant 1954 Imperial Chemical Industries, Ld. UK
Betadine, povodine-iodine topical skin disinfectant 1955 H.A. Shelanski, M.V. Shelanski USA
Metered dose inhaler asthma/COPD therapy 1956 Charlie Thiel, 3M USA
Bone marrow transplant blood cancer therapy 1956 E. Donnall Thomas USA
Birth control pill sexual freedom, contraception 1956, 1960 Gregory Pincus, John Rock, Min Chueh Chang USA (100)
Endoscopy, fiberoptic flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal 1957 Basil Hirschowitz, Larry Curtis, Wilbur Peters USA
Haloperidol, Haldol antipsychotic, schizophrenia 1958 Paul Janssen Belgium
Lasix, furosemide diuretic for swelling, edema, fluid retention 1959 Sanofi USA
Valium, diazepam sedative for anxiety 1959 Leo Sternbach USA
DOPA for Parkinson's disease anti-tremor effects 1960 Oleh Hornykiewicz Austria
Coronary artery bypass graft, heart CABG 1960 Robert Goetz, Michael DeBakey USA
Ibuprofen, Motrin, Advil non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine 1960 Stewart Adams UK
Liver and lung transplants organ transplants 1963 Thomas Starzl, James Hardy USA
Portable heart defibrillator advanced CPR 1965 Frank Pantridge UK
Commercial ultrasound obstetrics 1965 Walter Erich Krause USA
Rubella vaccine prevents German measles 1965 Harry Martin Meyer, Paul Parkman USA
Oral Sabin vaccine prevents polio with no injection needed 1966 Albert Bruce Sabin USA
Heart transplant successful 1967 Christiaan Neethling Barnard South Africa
Fogarty balloon catheter removes clots, minimally invasive 1969 Thomas Fogarty USA
Digital thermometer more accurate temperatures 1970 Robert Cherry Martin USA
Transdermal patch drug delivery through the skin 1971 Alejandro Zaffaroni USA
Pulse oximeter measures blood oxygen level 1972 Takuo Aoyagi Japan
Computed tomography scan CT scan 1972 Godfrey Hounsfield, Allan Cormack, Robert S. Ledley UK/USA
Magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan, no radiation 1973 Raymond Damadian, Paul Lauterbur USA (74)
Prozac antidepressant medication 1972 Ray W. Fuller, Bryan B. Molloy, David T. Wong USA
LASER eye surgery, Lasik vision correction with surgery 1973 Mani Lal Bhaumik India/USA
Liposuction cosmetic surgery 1974 Giorgio Fischer Italy
Total knee replacement surgery cemented metal and plastic parts 1974 John Insall USA
Heimlich maneuver food bolus extraction 1974 Henry Judah Heimlich USA
Versed, midazelam conscious sedation IV 1975 Armin Walser Switzerland
Positron emission tomography PET scan, cancer assessment 1977 Edward J. Hoffman, UCLA USA
In vitro fertilization test tube baby 1978 Patrick Steptoe, Robert Edwards UK
Lithotrypter for gallstones focused sound to break down gallstones 1980 Claude Dornier Germany
Hepatitis B test and vaccine diagnosis and prevents hepatitis B 1980 Baruch Samuel Blumberg USA
Mumps vaccine prevents mumps 1981 Maurice Hilleman USA
Artificial heart Jarvik -7 1982 Paul Winchell, Willem Johan Kolff, Robert Jarvik USA
Humulin recombinant insulin 1982 Genentech USA
RU-486 abortion pill avoids surgery 1988 Etienne-Emile Baulieu France
Intravascular stent catheter placed stent in obstructed blood vessel 1988 Julio Palmaz Argentina



Inventions from the INTERNET ERA Era

Protease inhibitors Invirase for AIDS/HIV 1990 Joseph A. Martin, Sally Redshaw USA
H. flu vaccine prevents Haemophilus influenza in children 1992 David Smith USA
Hepatitis A vaccine prevents hepatitis A 1993 Stephen Mark Feinstone, Albert Kapikian, Robert Purcell USA
Implanted bionic limb human/machine hybrid 1993 David James Gow UK
Catheter intracardiac cardioverter defibrillator placement ICD 1994 Michel Mirowski, Morton Mower USA
Portable defibrillator advanced CPR 1997 Frank Pantridge Ireland
Viagra, sildenafil citrate erectile dysfunction treatment 1997 Peter Dunn, Albert Wood, Pfizer USA
Stem cell lines stem cell therapy 1998 James Alexander Thomson USA
CRISPR technique-Cas9 DNA splicing genes 2001 Jennifer Doudna USA (93)
Telesurgery remotely performed videosurgery 2001 Michael Gagner, Jacques Marescaux USA/France
Clot inducing bandage, chitosan less bleeding with wounds 2002 HemCon USA
Meningitis vaccine prevents some forms of meningitis 2003 Rino Rappuoli Italy/USA
Chicken pox vaccine varicella prevention 2005 Michiaki Takahashi Japan
Human papilloma virus vaccine, recombinant prevents cervical cancer 2006 Ian Frazer UK/Australia
Freestyle continuous glucose monitoring more effective diabetes treatment and control 2007 Abbott Diabetes Care USA
Rotavirus vaccine prevents rotavirus infection 2007 H. Fred Clark, Paul Offit USA
Hepatitis C treatment, sofosbuvir cures hepatitis C in most cases 2007 Michael J. Sofia USA
Full face transplant extreme cosmetic surgery 2008 Laurent Lantieri France
Breathalyzer for lung cancer diagnosis some lung cancer types 2009 Israel Institute of Technology Israel
Electronic stethoscope more sensitive to sound 2010 3M/Littman USA
Uterus transplant allows birth in many cases 2011 Omer Ozkan, Muniere Erman Akar Turkey

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