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Materials, metals


Inventions from the TOKENS ERA Era

Elemental copper artifacts pre-smelting metallurgy 8700 BCE Northern Iraq
Metal chisel copper 7500 BCE Middle East
Tin smelting furnace required 6500 BCE Turkey
Copper smelting more advanced furnace 5000 BCE Serbia
Lost wax casting metal replaces melted wax 4000 BCE Israel, Indus River
Forging advanced furnace 4000 BCE Sumer, Mesopotamia
Metal rivet metallurgy 4000 BCE Sumer, Mesopotamia (90)

Inventions from the WRITTEN ERA Era

Bronze smelting tin and copper alloy 3400 BCE Mesopotamia (11)
Nail bronze 3400 BCE Egypt (64)
Bell bronze 3000 BCE China
Saw bronze 3000 BCE Egypt
Metal pliers metal tongs 3000 BCE Egypt/Mesopotamia
Brazing and soldering metal bonding 2500 BCE Egypt
Wrought iron simple iron 2500 BCE Anatolia, Turkey
Welding strong metal bonding 2500 BCE Anatolia, Turkey
Iron and gold dagger meteoric iron 2500 BCE Anatolia, Turkey (82)
Metal lock and key security 2000 BCE Assyria/Egypt
Iron smelting iron from ore 1800 BCE Mesopotamia (11)
Steel iron-carbon alloy 1800 BCE Anatolia, Turkey
Iron weaponry swords, spears, arrow heads 1600 BCE Hittites Anatolia, Turkey (82)
Scissors bronze 1500 CE Egypt
Wool shears metal 1000 BCE Egypt

Inventions from the ALPHABET ERA Era

Buckle metal 700 BCE Greece
Metal boat anchor 600 BCE Greece
Wootz crucible steel Damascus steel 600 BCE South India
Chain mail metal 400 BCE Romania
Gears metal and wood 350 BCE China
Ball bearing metal and wood 40 AD Rome
Metal fork hygiene utensil 300 AD Rome
Paired metal stirrups require a saddle to attach 300 AD China (62)

Inventions from the NUMBERS ERA Era

Bessimer process steel production 1040 AD China
Coil spring timekeeping 1420 AD Germany

Inventions from the PRINT ERA Era

Metal screw 1450 AD Europe (65)
Insulated copper wire for electricity 1827 AD Joseph Henry USA (12)

Inventions from the WIRED ERA Era

Chicken wire fence 1844 Charles Barnard UK
Safety pin 1849 Walter Hunt USA
Bessimer steel process high volume quality steel 1855 Henry Bessimer UK (28)
Modern whaling harpoon 1864 Svend Foyn Norway
Paper clip 1867 Samuel Fay USA
Stainless steel chromium steel alloy 1872 J. E. T. Woods, J. Clark UK (28)
Barbed wire practical 1874 Joseph Glidden USA
Blow torch welding lower temperatures 1881 Carl Nyborg Sweden
Steel girder skyscraper high rise buildings 1884 William Le Baron Jenney USA
Electric arc welding advanced welding 1885 Nikolai Benardos, Stanislaus Olszewski Russia/Poland
Aluminum commercial production 1886 Charles Martin Hall, and Julia Hall, Paul Heroult USA/France (57)
Bayer process for aluminum 1887 Carl Josef Bayer Austria
Bottle cap with cork seal 1892 William Painter USA
Vacuum flask Thermos device 1892 James Dewar UK
Oxy-acetylene welding torch welding 1903 Edmond Forche, Charles Picard France (77)
Crescent wrench adjustable wrench 1907 Johan Petter Johansson Sweden
Aluminum foil 1910 J. G. Nehor and Sons Switzerland
Stainless steel commercial production 1913 Harry Brearley UK (28)
Rivot metal 1915 Scotland, UK (90)

Inventions from the WIRELESS ERA Era

Snap on socket wrench directional wrenches with improved leverage 1920 Joseph Johnson, William Seidemann USA
Allen wrench hex head screw 1920 Edigio Brugola, William G. Allen Italy/USA
Super alloy Al-Ni-Cr aluminum, nickel, chromium alloy 1926 Paul Dyer Merica USA
Metal foam extremely lightweight metal, porous 1926 John C. Elliott USA
Metal detector 1928 Gerhard Fisher Germany/USA
Pop rivet, blind rivet allows one sided application 1928 Louis Huck USA
Shape memory alloys gold-cadmium 1928 Arne Olander Sweden
Beverage can 1933 American Can Co. USA
Phillips head screw more reliable for mechanical application 1934 Henry F. Phillips USA
Transistor MOS transistor most common device made ever 1947 John Bardeen Walter Brattain, Willam Shockley, Bell labs USA
Plasma spray 1950 Max Ulrich Schoop Switzerland
Electron beam welding 1952 Karl-Heinz, Steigerwald Germany
Hot isostatic pressing metal HIP metal 1955 Gripshover, Hanes, Battelle's Columbus labs USA
Integrated circuit silicon metalloid semiconductor "chip" 1958 Jack Kilby USA (21)
Pop top drink can ring pull pop top 1959 Ermal Fraze USA

Inventions from the INTERNET ERA Era

Intel 80486 microprocessor 1 million transistors 1990 Intel USA
Human radiofrequency identification chip RFID chip 1998 Charles Watson UK/USA
Composite metal foam hybrid materials 2005 Afsaneh Rabiei USA
Porous tantalum bone compatible 2005 Zimmer USA
3 dimensional metal printing accurate digital construction 2018 Carl Deckard USA


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