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Materials, non-Metals


Inventions from the ORAL ERA Era

Hafting stone to glue/wood lever 200,000 BCE Africa
Paints, pigments red ocre, charcoal 100,000 BCE Africa
Shell beads jewelry 100,000 BCE Israel, Algeria
Unbraided rope fiber technology 40,000 BCE Europe
Ceramic figurine fired ceramic 27,000 BCE Czechoslovakia (34)
Felt unwoven wool 20,000 BCE Central Asia
Primitive pottery fired low temperature 18,000 BCE China

Inventions from the TOKENS ERA Era

Advanced pottery vessels 10,000 BCE Japan
Mud bricks sun-dried 9000 BCE Israel
Mortar between bricks 9000 BCE Jerico, Israel
Stone monument carved stone 9000 BCE Gobokli, Turkey
Concrete cement when mixed with aggregate 6500 BCE Nabatacea (Middle East), (47 )
Carpentry wood shaping/construction 5000 BCE Egypt (41)
Fired bricks kiln dried/fired 4400 BCE China
Pottery wheel allows round containers 3800 BCE Sumer Mesopotamia

Inventions from the WRITTEN ERA Era

Clay tablets writing medium 3500 BCE Mesopotamia
Plywood layered wood 3500 BCE Egypt
Lubricating grease used with sledge, axles 3500 BCE Mesopotamia
Glass non blown glass 3000 BCE Lebanon, Middle East (22)
Hydraulic engineering canals, wells, dams, aqueducts, dykes 3000 BCE Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus River (14)
Stone ware durable ceramic 1400 BCE China

Inventions from the ALPHABET ERA Era

Glass blowing 100 BCE Phoenicia, Lebanon (22)
Coarse paper 100 BCE China (15)
Pozzolano hydraulic concrete 27 AD Bay of Naples, Rome (47)
Glass mirror 50 AD Lebanon, Middle East
Glass window 100 AD Rome
Fine paper similar to papyrus (Egypt 3000 BCE) 100 AD Chi Luin China (15)

Inventions from the NUMBERS ERA Era

Clear glass windows, lenses 500 AD Angelo Barovier Italy
Toilet paper improved hygiene 589 AD China
Porcelain high quality ceramic 700 AD China
Eyeglasses corrective optics 1000 AD China
Magnifying glass optics 1250 AD Roger Bacon England (UK)

Inventions from the PRINT ERA Era

Latex, rubber, paint vulcanized rubber, synthetic latex paint 1500, 1844 Charles Goodyear Latin America/USA (92)
Microscope compound 1600 AD Zacharias Jansen Netherlands
Telescope optical 1608 AD Hans Lippershey Netherlands
Bifocals 2 stacked lenses 1784 AD Benjamin Franklin USA

Inventions from the WIRED ERA Era

Standard diving suit 1837 Augustus Siebe Germany
Vulcanized rubber with sulfur 1839 Charles Goodyear USA
Modern Portland cement 1845 Joseph and William Aspdin, Isaac Charles Johnson UK
Rubber band 1845 Stephen Perry UK
Kerosene petroleum distillate 1848 Abraham Gesner Canada
Chemical vapor deposition 1852 Robert Bunsen Germany
Rubber boots Wellington 1852 Hiram Hutchinson USA/France
Reinforced concrete steel in cement/concrete 1853 Francois Coignet France
Celluloid plastic Parkesine first plastic 1856 Alexander Parkes, John Wesley Hyatt UK/USA. (43)
Oil refinery 1856 James Miller Williams, Ignancy Lukasiewicz, James Young Poland/UK/Canada. (79)
Gasoline petroleum distillate 1859 Thomas Midgley USA
Linoleum flooring 1860 Frederick Walton UK
Indigo dye first synthetic dye 1865 Adolf von Baeyer Germany
Paper bag flat bottom 1870 Margaret Knight USA
Vaseline petroleum jelly 1870 Robert Chesebrough USA
Modern chewing gum 1870 Thomas Adams USA
Cardboard corrugated 1871 Albert L. Jones USA
Asphalt petroleum pavement 1872 Edward de Smed Belgium/USA
PVC poly vinylchloride hard plastic 1872 Eugen Bauman Germany
Rayon synthetic fiber 1884 Louis-Marie-Hilaire Bernigaud, Count of Chardonnet France
Contact lenses lenses directly on the eye 1887 Adolf Fick Germany
Pneumatic rubber tire air cushion 1887 John Boyd Dunlop UK
Thermal cracking of oil improved refining of oil 1891 Vladimir Shukhov Russia
Glass blowing machine 1895 Michael Owens USA
Polyethylene most common plastic 1898 Hans von Pechmann Germany
Wax crayon colored writing/drawing 1903 Edwin Binney, C. Harold Smith USA
Laminated glass safety glass 1903 Edouard Benedictus France
Glass bottle making machine automatic 1903 Michael Joseph Owens USA
Silicone rubbery material 1904 Frederic Stanley Kippinig UK
Bakelite plastic synthetic shellac 1907 Leo Hendrik Baekeland Belgium/USA
Formica laminate 1912 Daniel O'Conor, Herbert Faber USA
Pyrex boron glass 1915 William C. Taylor, Eugene Sullivan USA

Inventions from the WIRELESS ERA Era

Isopropyl alcohol 1920 Standard Oil Co. USA
Facial tissue paper disposable 1924 Kimberly-Clark Co. USA
Tape scotch, masking, duct 1925,1930,1940 Richard Gurley Drew USA (97)
Vinyl poly vinyl chloride 1926 Waldo Lonsbury Semon USA
Aerosol spray can 1926 Erik Rotholm Norway
Freon refrigerant,chlorofluorocarbons refrigerator, air conditioner 1928 Thomas Midgley, Jr. USA
Foam rubber 1929 E.A. Murphy, Dunlap Latex Development lab UK
Neoprene 1930 Elmer K. Bolton, Wallace Carothers, Dupont USA
Paper towels disposable 1931 Arthur Scott USA
Saran wrap PVDC, poly vinylidene chloride 1932 Ralph Wiley USA
Plexiglass clear plastic 1933 Otto Rohm Germany
Run flat automobile tires 1934 Michelin France
Nylon polymer fiber 1935 Wallace Carothers, DuPont USA/UK
Epoxy resin adhesive 1936 Pierre Castan, Sylvan Greenlee Switzerland/USA
Screw on bottle cap resealable top 1936 Edward Ravenscroft USA
Disposable diapers 1936 Paulistrom Bruk, Marion O'Brien Donovan USA
Polyurethane 1937 Otto Bayer Germany
Fiberglass no rot in water 1938 Russell Games Slayter, John Thomas, Owen Corning USA
Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene 1938 Roy Plunkett USA
Non-reflective glass 1938 Katherine Blodgett USA
Polyester Dacron fiber 1939 John Whinfield, James Dickson, W.H. Caruthers, DuPont UK/USA (74)
Latex paint c;leans up with water 1941 Sherwin Williams USA
Superglue cyanoacrylate adhesive 1942 Harry Coover USA
Radial tires improved performance 1945 Michelin France
Tupperware high performance plastic containers 1945 Earl Tupper USA
Acrylic paint 1947 Leonard Bocour, Sam Golden USA
Cat litter improved cat hygiene 1947 Edward Lowe USA
Fracking gas with water 1947 Floyd Farris, J.B. Clark, Standard Oil Co. USA
Velcro 1948 George de Mestral Switzerland
Aerosol spray paint convenient paint 1949 Ed Seymour USA
Polypropylene polymer fiber rot resistant 1951 Giulio Natta Italy
Gorilla glass , lithium silicate ultra strong glass 1952 Corning USA/Netherlands
Fiber optic glass 100% internal light reflection 1953 Narinder Singh Kapany UK (57)
WD - 40 spray lubricant 1953 Norm Larsen USA
Styrofoam, polystyrene packing material 1954 Ray McIntire, Dow USA
Ziplock bags resealable clear bags 1954 Borge Madsen Denmark
Synthetic diamonds high pressure, high temperature 1955, 1971 Tracy Hall, GE USA (92)
Hair spray aerosol 1955 Chase products USA
Bubble wrap packing material 1957 Alfred Fielding, Marc Chavannes USA/Switzerland
Ziptie, cable tie plastic locking closure device 1958 Thomas and Betts USA
Carbon fiber, high performance often a composite 1958 Bacon and Wesley Schalamon USA
Spandex, lycra elastic, stretch fabric 1959 Joseph Shivers, DuPont USA
Pantyhose 1959 Glenn Raven Mills USA
Plastic bag 1959 Sten Gustaf Thulin Sweden
Photochromic glass light darkening glass, lenses 1962 William Arnistead, Donald Stookey, Corning Glass USA
Astroturf synthetic grass surface for sports 1965 James Faria, Robert T. Wright USA
Kevlar, strong polymer fiber bullet proof vest 1965, 1975 Stephanie Kwolek, DuPont USA
Hydroxyapatite bioceramic, orthopedic implants 1969 Larry Hench USA
Goretex , stretched teflon breathable waterproof fabric 1969 Wilbert L. Gore, Robert W. Gore, Rowena Taylor USA
Post It notes silicone adhesive 1970 Arthur Fry, 3M USA
Fiberoptic glass ultra pure 1970 Corning Netherlands
Nike waffle shoe sportswear 1971 Bill Bowerman USA
PET, polyethylene terephthalate recyclable plastic 1973 Nathaniel Wyeth USA
Touchscreen Gorilla Glass, lithium silicate 1975, 1987 George Samuel Hurst USA
Conductive polymers electric conducting plastic 1977 Alan MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa, Alan Heeger USA
Polar fleece polyester insulating fabric 1979 Malden Mills, Polartec USA
Liquid soap, Softsoap in pump dispenser 1980 Minnetonka Co. USA
Chemical vapor deposition diamonds synthetic gem quality 1985 William G. Eversol USA
Fullerene bucky ball 1985 Harold W. Kroto, Richard E. Smalley, Robert F. Curl USA
High temperature ceramic superconductor 1986 Karl Alex Muller, Johannes Georg Gednorz Switzerland/Germany
Crosslinked polyethylene extremely wear resistant plastic, orthopedic implants 1988 Thomas Engel Germany




Inventions from the INTERNET ERA Era

Carbon nanotubes nanotechnology 1991 Sumio Iijima Japan
Microencapsulated pesticides in paint protects against insects 1996 Pilar Mateo Spain
Self cleaning windows, titanium dioxide SunClean windows 2001 Pilkington Glass UK
D3O energy absorbing plastic soft body armour which hardens on impact 2001 Richard Palmer UK
Self healing polymers repairs some types of damage 2001 Scott White, Nancy Sottos USA
Optical camouflage fabric which gives partial invisibility 2002 Susumu Tachi, Guy Kramer Japan/USA
Graphene one molecule thick graphite sheet, super material 2004 Andre Geim, Konstantin Novoselov UK
Self repairing glass polyether-thiourea 2017 U of Tokyo Japan
Ultraviolet light activated bonder Bondic 2020 Thomas Offerman Germany

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